Connect with us

F1 Technical

Explained – 2016 F1 Steering Wheel



  • 24
Explained - 2016 F1 Steering Wheel

Explained – 2016 F1 Steering Wheel

“Nico Rosberg, engage STRAT mode 3” Confused? I am sure you are. So, let’s simplify things.

The steering wheel on an F1 car is insanely complicated and the amount of data that a driver can get is humongous. Also, the drivers can control large number of parameters while driving at speeds of over 300 kph. So, how do they do that? Let’s take an in-depth look into a modern F1 steering wheel.

For this article, I will be using the steering wheel used on the Mercedes as the reference.Different teams have their own layout and the settings may vary but they are basically the same.Also, the steering wheel layout may be different from driver to driver as they are made according to driver preferences.


The first thing that strikes out is a big display screen.New generation formula 1 cars use an OLED display screen which can display up to 100 pages of information. The drivers have access to various data such as their speed,lap time, difference to the leader,Battery energy status etc. All of this information can be displayed in a colourful manner on the screen and thus makes it easy for the driver to know the status of the car.

Also, the team can notify the driver via the screen immediately if something is safety critical.


Just above the OLED display there is the presence of gear shift lights which aid the driver in optimising their gear shift times.

Also, there are 2 pairs of lights(Yellow and white) which indicate a Yellow flag and danger zone respectively.


DRS Button: Pressing this button opens the DRS flap present on the rear wing thus reducing drag on the straights.

N(Neutral) Button: The gear shift levers which are mounted at the back cannot engage reverse and neutral gears. So, there’s a dedicated button for this purpose. Both, neutral and reverse can be engaged by the “N” button, by either just one press or a long press.

“X” Button: This is the confirm button which is used to acknowledge any instruction coming from the pit wall.

OT(Overtake) Button: Pressing the overtake button dials the car into a state of hyperdrive giving maximum boost from the engine and the ERS system.

PC(Pit-Confirm) Button: The driver can signal the pit crew that he is about to enter the pits by pressing PC button thus allowing the pit crew to be ready with the tyres.

PL Button: Pit-lane speed limiter button is used to limit the speed of the car to the designated pit-lane speed limit.

Talk Button: This is used by the driver to talk via the radio to the pit wall.

RS(Race Start) Button: This is used during the start of the race, pressing it accesses a pre-defined launch map which includes optimal clutch and ERS settings.

Mark Button: Used to identify a point of interest in the data as indicated by the driver.


There are 6 rotary thumb dials which allow the driver to change the settings with just the usage of the thumb while his hand stays on the wheel.

ENTRY and EXIT Thumb Dial: These two rotaries are used to adjust the differential settings during corner entry and exit. Ad differential basically regulates the speed of the wheel of one side in respect to the wheel on other side. Say the driver is taking a left turn so the wheel on the left has to cover lesser distance than the wheel on the right to negotiate the turn.So, in order to prevent the dragging of the tyres the differential instructs the right wheel to be rotated at a higher speed compared to the left.

This setting is very important to get optimum balance.

MID and HI SPEED Thumb dial: These two dials also adjust the differential. One is for mid-corner while other is for Hi-speed turn. These are relatively less used compared to ENTRY and EXIT differentials.

Brake Balance thumb dial: This is denoted as BB+ and BMIG. These are extensions of the mechanically operated brake bias lever which is present inside the cockpit.Using these dials the driver can shift the brake bias either to the front or back depending on his preference.

With the introduction of ERS system, adjusting brake balance has become ever so critical,the braking action is done by mechanically operated brakes plus the MGU-K(Regenerative braking). And, so there’s the usage of term “Brake-by-wire”.

The computer splits the rear and front brake bias according to the energy harvest settings and so getting optimum brake balance has become tougher. Now, the driver has to adjust brake balance in conjunction with energy harvest and boost settings to find the optimum performance.


There are 3 rotary dials, which are present near the bottom.

STRAT(Left Rotary): This is the strategy dial, and is mainly used to control ERS harvest and boost settings i.evia this dial the driver can adjust the balance between energy recovery and energy boost, so say at the start of the race you will usually see drivers in mode “STRAT3” in which there is preference to the boost side of the settings. So, the amount of harvest will be less compared to the boost supplied.

Multi-Function Rotary(Centre Rotary): This dial is used to control an array of settings such as BITE (clutch bite point find), TRQ (torque), BBW (Brake-By-Wire) and TYRE.

HPP(High powertrain Rotary-Right Dial): This is used to control engine settings i.e of the V6 Internal combustion engine. By using different modes indicated by the number, the fuel mixtures and ignition timings can be adjusted. So, say a driver is engaged in a battle with another car, so he wants maximum power, the driver will adjust settings such that rich fuel mixture is supplied to the engine thus giving him more power.

Switch error which caused Rosberg-Hamilton crash in Spanish GP:

The 2016 Spanish Grand Prix was one to forget for the Mercedes F1 team as both of their driver’s crashed into each other on the opening lap.Now, after viewing the onboard footage we can confirm that the accident was caused due to Rosberg being in a wrong engine mode.

As Nico drew up to the grid he was in “STRAT 12” as would be expected, during the warm-up lap the energy and fuel are conserved by engaging STRAT 12.

But, before the race start, the driver has to engage “STRAT3” and by the onboard footage, it’s clear that Rosberg failed to engage STRAT3.

Rosberg's Steering Wheel

Rosberg’s Steering Wheel

(Rosberg’s wheel features three instruction stickers to remind the driver of which settings must be completed at various points in the pre-race procedure.

So, how would this lead to an accident?

Being in STRAT 12 didn’t hamper Rosberg’s launch and initial getaway but as he reached turn 3 the computer went into energy conserve mode and the 160 bhp boost that the ERS provides was suddenly lost, and this is when Rosberg “derated” allowing Hamilton to close in like a rocket as he was in correct engine mode i.e STRAT 3


If you see the onboard footage from Hamilton’s car you can see that just before the accident the rain light on Rosberg’s car started to flash and that basically is the warning to the driver behind that Nico wasn’t getting full boost from the ERS instead was in an energy harvest mode.

Also, from the onboard footage of Nico, we can see that he realised about the wrong engine mode and he did switch it to STRAT 3 and pressed the OT button but unfortunately it was too late.

Nishant Raj
F1 Technical Writer



Latest F1 News

Latest F1 News

2019 F11 month ago

Hamilton and Mercedes clearly coming under pressure – J Verstappen

24SharesMax Verstappen’s father thinks the on-form Red Bull driver has rattled reigning five time world champion and 2019 championship leader...

2019 F11 month ago

20hp engine boost for Ferrari after summer break

24SharesToto Wolff is forecasting a “very strong” performance by Ferrari after the summer break. Marca sports newspaper reports that the...

2019 F11 month ago

I’m not ready for Formula E – Hulkenberg

24SharesNico Hulkenberg says he is “not ready” to contemplate a switch to Formula E. It is strongly rumoured that if...

2019 F11 month ago

BREAKING: Albon to replace Gasly from Belgian GP

24SharesToro Rosso’s speedy Alexander Albon will replace Pierre Gasly at Red Bull from the next race in Belgium, the F1...

2019 F11 month ago

Alonso says it is not true liking Vettel

24SharesFernando Alonso says it is not true that he doesn’t like Sebastian Vettel. In Hungary, amid rumours the retired double...

2019 F11 month ago

F1 teams balk at expensive new regulations

24SharesF1 teams are pushing back on proposed new regulations — for reasons of cost. One idea that could be scrapped...

2019 F11 month ago

McLaren targets Sainz to beat Gasly in 2019

24SharesMcLaren is targeting a coveted sixth place in the 2019 drivers’ world championship with Carlos Sainz. With Mercedes, Ferrari and...

2019 F11 month ago

F1 broadcaster fails to show Sainz in Hungary

24SharesCarlos Sainz was “the invisible man” during the recent Hungarian GP. In fact, well-known Spanish journalist Antonio Lobato claims that...

2019 F11 month ago

Marko confirms Verstappen staying at Red Bull-Honda for F1 2020

24SharesRed Bull motorsport head Dr Helmut Marko has confirmed that Max Verstappen is definitely staying at Red Bull-Honda in 2020....

2019 F11 month ago

Me and Russel are eating two different dishes – Kubica

24SharesRobert Kubica is yet to benefit from what seems to have been a clear step forward for Williams and George...

Most Popular is not affiliated with Formula 1, Formula One Management, Formula One Administration, Formula One Licensing BV, Formula One World Championship Ltd or any other organization or entity associated with the official Formula One governing organizations or their shareholders. Copyrighted material used under Fair Use/Fair Comment.

We could use the following leading F1 news sources for stories: SkyF1, BBC F1, Autosport, ESPN F1, FIA Media Center, MotorSport, JamesAllen and others leading authors blog.

All Rights Reserved © 2017 Prime Sport Media